Oceanography Practice Final Exam

Marine Life, Resources, and Pollution (Chapters 13-16)

 

Please Note: 1) The actual exam will consist of approximately 70 questions.

2) Many of the questions on the real exam will come from this practice test.

 

____1. A good "working definition" for life might be: "A highly organized system that can capture, transform, store, and transmit ______________."

a.

food

b.

raw materials

c.

metabolic products

d.

waste products

e.

energy

 

____ 2. By using the word "commonality" to describe one of the basic attributes of life, we mean:

a.

All life interacts, in some way, with all other life.

b.

All life shares certain basic underlying mechanisms within each individual.

c.

All living organisms require identical raw materials and produce essentially similar end products.

d.

all living things had different origins.

 

____ 3. Most biologists and geologists now think life began on Earth about:

a.

3 million years ago.

b.

8 billion years ago.

c.

3.5 - 4 billion years ago.

d.

10,000 years ago.

e.

500,000 years ago.

 

____ 4. The life that first formed on Earth was in the forms of complex cells and multicellular organisms such as we see around us today:

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

____ 5. In order to survive, every organism must have a continuous external source of:

a.

adult living organisms.

b.

spores, seeds, gametes, etc.

c.

oxygen.

d.

energy.

e.

tender loving care.

 

____ 6. Which of these factors was not present in large quantities on Earth's surface at the time of the origin of life here?

a.

electrical energy (lightning, etc.)

b.

heat.

c.

free atmospheric oxygen.

d.

ionizing radiation (X-rays, gamma rays, etc.)

e.

rain and erosion.

 

____ 7. The Gaia hypothesis, suggested in 1979 by James Lovelock, suggests that life influences the physical environment of Earth, possibly by intentional control.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 8. Which of the following is never part of the carbon cycle?

a.

carbonate rocks

b.

carbon dioxide

c.

shells and ooze

d.

dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

e.

all of the items listed above are part of the carbon cycle.

 

____ 9. "Fixation" means

a.

the spaying or neutering of marine mammals to prevent overpopulation.

b.

binding an atom into a larger molecule.

c.

adding carbon dioxide to a compound.

d.

adding nitrogen to a compound.

e.

removing oxygen from a large molecule

 

____ 10. Mass extinctions are

a.

relatively common, happening about once in every million years.

b.

so rare that only one is known from the time of the solidification of Earth's surface.

c.

relatively rare - perhaps 6 great extinctions have occurred since the origin of life on Earth roughly every 250 million years or so.

d.

mythical and unproven

e.

annual events occurring with the changing of the seasons.

 

____ 11. The zone of lighted ocean in which marine autotrophs tap more energy (surplus) than they use to stay alive is called:

a.

the photic zone

b.

the euphotic zone

c.

the abyssal zone

d.

the mesopelagic zone

e.

the hadal zone

 

____ 12. Though it is difficult to generalize for the ocean as a whole, the bottom of the euphotic zone is typically __________ meters (feet) in mid-latitudes.

a.

20 meters (66 feet)

b.

70 meters (230 feet)

c.

120 meters (380 feet)

d.

200 meters (650 feet)

e.

500 meters (1600 feet)

 

____ 13. The two main inorganic nutrients necessary for the success of marine autotrophs are:

a.

carbon dioxide and carbohydrates.

b.

glucose and oxygen.

c.

nitrates and phosphates.

d.

nitrates and carbohydrates.

e.

phosphates and carbohydrates.

 

____ 14. An organism's metabolic rate approximately doubles with a temperature increase of 20C.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 15. Most marine organisms have an internal temperature very close to that of their surroundings. They are known as ____________ organisms.

a.

endothermic (warm-blooded)

b.

exothermic (cold-blooded)

c.

homeothermic (single-blooded)

d.

poikilothermic (multi-blooded)

 

____ 16. All other factors being equal, a greater quantity of dissolved gas can be held in solution in warm seawater than in cold seawater.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

____ 17. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, the water becomes slightly more

a.

acidic, its pH is higher.

b.

acidic, its pH is lower.

c.

alkaline, its pH is higher.

d.

alkaline, its pH is lower.

 

____ 18. A physical or biological necessity whose presence in inappropriate amounts limits the normal action of an organism is called a(n)

a.

community factor

b.

biological factor

c.

environmental factor

d.

ecological factor

e.

limiting factor

 

____ 19. A marine animal placed in fresh water would be __________________in its environment.

a.

hypertonic

b.

hypotonic

c.

isotonic

d.

diatonic

e.

monotonic

 

____ 20. Diffusion of water through a biological membrane is called:

a.

active transport.

b.

osmosis.

c.

diffusion.

d.

isotonicity.

 

____ 21. The movement of a substance through a biological membrane from a region of low concentration to a region of higher concentration is called

a.

active transport.

b.

osmosis.

c.

diffusion.

d.

isotonicity.

 

____ 22. The open ocean realm, away from land.

a.

pelagic

b.

benthic

c.

neritic

d.

oceanic

e.

hadal

 

____ 23. The open ocean environment (up in the water column), in general.

a.

pelagic

b.

benthic

c.

neritic

d.

oceanic

e.

hadal

 

____ 24. Refers to the bottom, in general.

a.

pelagic

b.

benthic

c.

neritic

d.

oceanic

e.

hadal

 

____ 25. The open ocean environment, over the continental shelves.

a.

pelagic

b.

benthic

c.

neritic

d.

oceanic

e.

hadal

 

____ 26. A population of fish in an enclosed lagoon was threatened with overpopulation and a stressed food supply until a number of predators discovered the population. After a time, there were fewer fish, but the average swimming speed of the population of fish had increased. This is a good illustration of:

a.

Artificially induced mutation.

b.

Hereditary transmission of the results of training.

c.

Natural selection.

d.

Population explosion.

e.

Genetic drift.

 

____ 27. "Success" in biology means:

a.

Amount of territory controlled.

b.

Number of mates.

c.

Number of living offspring.

d.

Size of adult individual.

e.

Appearance of adult individual.

 

____ 28. Isolation of varieties resulting in the formation of a new species can involve differences in:

a.

environmental requirements.

b.

geographic distribution.

c.

seasonal or physiological aspects of sexual

reproduction.

d.

sexual structures.

e.

all of the above.

 

____ 29. Speciation (origination of new species) nearly always requires some form of:

a.

mutation and/or variation.

b.

isolation.

c.

selection "for" a trait.

d.

successful reproduction.

e.

all of the above.

 

____ 30. The classical definition of species depends ultimately on:

a.

differences in appearance.

b.

differences in evolutionary background.

c.

reproductive isolation from other species.

d.

differences in taxonomy.

e.

physical isolation from other species.

 

____ 31. Which of the following best states the evolutionary theory?

a.

Evolution is the maintenance of life under

changing conditions.

b.

Evolution is the invariable survival of the

fittest.

c.

Evolution is the descent of humans from apes.

d.

Evolution is the inheritance of acquired

characteristics.

 

____ 32. The inventor of the system of biological nomenclature we use today was:

a.

Benjamin Franklin

b.

Matthew Maury

c.

Charles Darwin

d.

Thomas Henry Huxley

e.

Carolus Linnaeus

 

____ 33. A natural system of classification for living organisms relies on an analysis of

a.

external similarities.

b.

size and color.

c.

habitat.

d.

evolutionary relationships.

e.

species numbers.

 

____ 34. A single species is segregated from all other kinds of living things by

a.

isolation in space.

b.

isolation in time.

c.

reproductive isolation.

d.

differences in sizes and colors.

e.

differences in life-styles.

 

____ 35. Scientific names are

a.

permanent.

b.

universally applicable to the species in question.

c.

usually descriptive in an unchanging language.

d.

monitored to prevent duplication.

e.

all of the above.

 

____ 36. When a phytoplankter remains below its compensation depth, it:

a.

will survive, but will grow much more slowly.

b.

will eventually die.

c.

will die almost immediately.

d.

[The question is meaningless.]

 

____ 37. The compensation depth for zooplankton is ________________ that for phytoplankton.

a.

higher than

b.

lower than

c.

the same as

d.

[The question is meaningless.]

 

____ 38. Seaweeds are of great interest to marine biologists, but have no commercial value.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

____ 39. Flexible outer covering.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 40. Propelled by twin whip-like projections.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 41. Two valves, or shells, of glass-like substance.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 42. HABs or "red tides" are usually caused by these.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 43. These sometimes use a small droplet of oil for flotation.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 44. The more primitive of the two (evolved first).

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 45. Some species are brightly bioluminescent.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 46. Cut through by tiny pores that permit contact of membranes with seawater.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 47. Of the two plant-like organisms listed, this one has the deeper average compensation depth.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 48. The more efficient photosynthesizer of the two plants listed.

a.

diatom

b.

dinoflagellate

c.

neither

d.

both

 

____ 49. Smallest drifting organisms.

a.

plankton

b.

meroplankton

c.

ultraplankton

d.

phytoplankton

e.

zooplankton

 

____ 50. Part of the organism's life cycle is spent as a member of the plankton community.

a.

plankton

b.

meroplankton

c.

ultraplankton

d.

phytoplankton

e.

zooplankton

 

____ 51. Plant-like organisms.

a.

plankton

b.

meroplankton

c.

ultraplankton

d.

phytoplankton

e.

zooplankton

 

____ 52. Drifting with the currents.

a.

plankton

b.

meroplankton

c.

ultraplankton

d.

phytoplankton

e.

zooplankton

 

____ 53. Animals.

a.

plankton

b.

meroplankton

c.

ultraplankton

d.

phytoplankton

e.

zooplankton

 

____ 54. Plankton is a phylogenetic category.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

____ 55. The group of marine algae best adapted to deep water is:

a.

red algae, the Rhodophyta.

b.

green algae, the Chlorophyta.

c.

blue-green algae, the cyanobacteria.

d.

golden algae, the Chrysophyta.

e.

brown algae, the Phaeophyta.

 

____ 56. Kelp, or common seaweed, is in this group:

a.

red algae, the Rhodophyta.

b.

green algae, the Chlorophyta.

c.

blue-green algae, the cyanobacteria.

d.

golden algae, the Chrysophyta.

e.

brown algae, the Phaeophyta.

 

____ 57. Marine algae are non-vascular plants.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

____ 58. The biomass (living bulk) of seaweeds in the ocean is greater than the biomass of phytoplankton.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 59. What is produced in primary productivity?

a.

carbon dioxide

b.

cold, blue light

c.

carbohydrates

d.

gametes

e.

carbon atoms

 

____ 60. Where, through a year, is the greatest total oceanic primary productivity?

a.

in the tropics.

b.

in the temperate zones.

c.

in the polar regions.

d.

productivity is about equal at all latitudes.

 

____ 61. The depth at which phytoplankton productivity is often greatest when averaged for a whole day is:

a.

about 1 meter (3.3 feet)

b.

about 20 meters (66 feet)

c.

between 5 and 10 meters (17 and 33 feet)

d.

below 30 meters (below 100 feet)

e.

below 300 meters (below 1,000 feet)

 

____ 62. Typical plankton productivity in the temperate zone is about _____ gC/m2/yr.

a.

5

b.

120

c.

500

d.

1,200

e.

10,000

 

____ 63. All large (i.e., easily visible to the unaided eye) marine plants are marine algae.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 64. Ultraplankton consist mainly of:

a.

diatoms and dinoflagellates.

b.

small forms of zooplankton.

c.

bacteria and viruses.

d.

unusually large floating organisms such as medusae (jellyfish).

e.

temporary members of the plankton community.

 

____ 65. Primary productivity can be measured from satellites by sensors that detect

a.

oxygen in seawater.

b.

carbohydrates in seawater.

c.

sea surface temperature.

d.

latitude and longitude.

e.

chlorophyll concentrations.

 

____ 66. Primary productivity occurring on land is now thought to be about __________ primary productivity in the ocean.

a.

10% of

b.

50% of

c.

200% of

d.

the same as

e.

[the question is meaningless]

 

____ 67. The organisms that produce food are called:

a.

primary consumers

b.

primary producers

c.

heterotrophs

d.

secondary consumers

e.

secondary producers

 

____ 68. In photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight ultimately rests in

a.

carbon dioxide molecules.

b.

carbohydrates.

c.

oxygen molecules.

d.

water molecules.

 

____ 69. Roughly _____ of the energy consumed by any consumer is stored in the eater as flesh.

a.

5%

b.

10%

c.

15%

d.

25%

e.

50%

 

____ 70. The organisms that consume autotrophs are called:

a.

primary producers.

b.

heterotrophs.

c.

secondary producers.

d.

secondary consumers.

e.

top carnivores.

 

____ 71. Animals are incapable of synthesizing their own food.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 72. During the "oxygen revolution,"

a.

the oxygen content of the atmosphere dropped precipitously.

b.

the nitrogen in the atmosphere was replaced by oxygen.

c.

the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere increased significantly.

d.

the oxygen in the atmosphere caught fire and roasted the dinosaurs.

e.

the oxygen in the atmosphere was briefly replaced by inert gases.

 

____ 73. A phylum whose members are radially symmetrical, based on the number 5, and have tube-feet at some time in their development:

a.

Phylum Arthropoda

b.

Phylum Echinodermata

c.

Phylum Nematoda

d.

Phylum Chordata

e.

none of these

 

____ 74. The most successful phylum on Earth, if success means the number of individuals and number of species, is:

a.

Phylum Arthropoda

b.

Phylum Echinodermata

c.

Phylum Nematoda

d.

Phylum Chordata

e.

none of these

 

____ 75. Which of these is not characteristic of members of the phylum Arthropoda?

a.

An exoskeleton of chitin.

b.

Articulated appendages.

c.

An exoskeleton of protein.

d.

Striated muscle.

e.

A distinct valved heart.

 

____ 76. Which of the vertebrate groups is considered the most ancient?

a.

The fishes.

b.

The mammals.

c.

The reptiles.

d.

The amphibians.

e.

The birds.

 

____ 77. The sharks, skates, and rays are members of this group:

a.

Reptilia

b.

Chondrichthyes

c.

Osteichthyes

d.

Agnatha

e.

none of the above

 

78. Bony fish (like tuna or anchovies) are members of this group:

a.

Mammalia

b.

Chondrichthyes

c.

Osteichthyes

d.

Agnatha

e.

none of the above

 

____ 79. A marine fish must ____________ seawater, and _________ salt from special glands in the gills.

a.

excrete ... import

b.

drink ... import

c.

excrete ... export

d.

drink ... export

e.

neither drink nor excrete ... import

 

____ 80. In the gill of a fish, water and blood circulate _______________, which _________________ transfer efficiency.

a.

in the same direction ... increases

b.

in opposite directions ... increases

c.

in the same direction ... decreases

d.

in opposite directions ... decreases

e.

by mixing together ... increases

 

____ 81. There are no true marine amphibians, mainly because

a.

not enough time has passed for their evolution.

b.

their skin is not permeable to water.

c.

their skin is too permeable to water.

d.

the outermost layer of their skin dissolves in a saline environment.

e.

they don't have gills.

 

____ 82. All of these statements about marine turtles are true except:

a.

All are in some danger of extinction.

b.

They have a strong homing instinct.

c.

Their front limbs are flattened.

d.

Their heads retract into their shells.

e.

Living species may exceed 3 meters (10 feet) in length.

 

____ 83. All sea snakes are venomous.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 84. The wings of the most "severely oceanic" birds (that is, birds spending nearly all of their life span aloft over the ocean) tend to be

a.

short and blunt.

b.

long, thick, and pointed.

c.

long, thin, and pointed.

d.

long, thin, and blunt.

e.

short and pointed.

 

____ 85. Marine birds eliminate salt by

a.

traveling to land to drink fresh water.

b.

storing water from rains within their feathers.

c.

extracting fresh water from their prey.

d.

manufacturing fresh water from seawater.

e.

using salt glands to extract salt from their blood.

 

____ 86. Animals that generate and regulate metabolic heat and maintain an internal body temperature generally higher than that of their surroundings are called:

a.

poikilotherms

b.

mesotherms

c.

paratherms

d.

homeotherms

e.

none of the above

 

____ 87. Marine mammals began to evolve distinctly from land mammals about _______ million years ago.

a.

2

b.

20

c.

50

d.

250

e.

500

 

____ 88. Marine mammals.

a.

Cetacea

b.

Pinnipedia

c.

Sirenia

d.

all of these

e.

none of these

 

____ 89. Whales.

a.

Cetacea

b.

Pinnipedia

c.

Sirenia

d.

all of these

e.

none of these

 

____ 90. Fishes.

a.

Cetacea

b.

Pinnipedia

c.

Sirenia

d.

all of these

e.

none of these

 

____ 91. Manatees, sea cows.

a.

Cetacea

b.

Pinnipedia

c.

Sirenia

d.

all of these

e.

none of these

 

____ 92. Seals, sea lions, walruses.

a.

Cetacea

b.

Pinnipedia

c.

Sirenia

d.

all of these

e.

none of these

 

____ 93. Which of these characteristics is not applicable to all Cetacea?

a.

Almost complete hair loss.

b.

Large, deeply convoluted brain.

c.

Air-breathing.

d.

Teeth in powerful jaws.

e.

Skin that decreases the friction of water flow at middle and high speeds.

 

____ 94. These whales are also known as baleen or whalebone whales:

a.

whales of suborder Odontoceti.

b.

whales of suborder Mysticeti.

c.

all whales.

d.

all whales and most sharks (combined).

e.

none of these.

 

____ 95. Most sharks are dangerous to humans.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 96. Sonar is used by

a.

all whales.

b.

toothed whales, primarily.

c.

baleen whales, primarily.

d.

the navy and many bats, but not whales.

e.

none of the above.

 

____ 97. The largest whale is:

a.

the gray whale.

b.

the sei whale.

c.

the killer whale.

d.

the blue whale.

e.

the minke whale.

 

____ 98. Which of these statements describes the smallest whales?

a.

They are members of the Odontocete group.

b.

They catch their prey with teeth.

c.

They may stun their prey with very loud sounds.

d.

They appear to be quite intelligent.

e.

(All of the above are true.)

 

____ 99. Sea birds navigate by using

a.

the sun angle and the position of distant stars.

b.

polarized light.

c.

the Earth's magnetic field.

d.

very likely they use all of the above.

 

____ 100. Which group of marine mammals was named because of its fanciful resemblance to mermaids?

a.

Cetacea

b.

Pinnipedia

c.

Fissipedia

d.

Sirenia

e.

none of the above

 

____ 101. A group of organisms of the same species occupying a specific area is called a(n) ______________________.

a.

community.

b.

habitat.

c.

population.

d.

biome.

e.

(none of the above)

 

____ 102. The many populations of organisms that interact with one another at a particular location form a ____________________.

a.

community.

b.

habitat.

c.

niche.

d.

biome.

e.

(none of the above)

 

____ 103. An organism's "address" within a community is its _____________, while an organism's ________________ is its "occupation" within that habitat.

a.

biome ... niche

b.

habitat ... biome

c.

niche ... habitat

d.

habitat ... niche

e.

niche ... biome

 

____ 104. A stenohaline organism would probably be able to withstand a broad range of salinities.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 105. Organisms newly introduced into a favorable environment with no competitors for food or space will, for a time, reproduce in a _____________ curve.

a.

S-shaped

b.

J-shaped

c.

bell-shaped

d.

hyperbolic

e.

parabolic

 

____ 106. Referring to question #5 above, the rate of growth described by this curve is rarely maintained for long because of

a.

exponential resistance.

b.

J-curve disruption.

c.

S-curve disruption.

d.

environmental opposition.

e.

environmental resistance.

 

____ 107. The rarest pattern for organism distributions is:

a.

clumped distribution.

b.

negative binomial distribution.

c.

random distribution.

d.

uniform distribution.

e.

even distribution.

 

____ 108. A stable, long-established community is known as:

a.

a habitat.

b.

a climax community.

c.

a succession.

d.

a niche.

e.

(none of the above)

 

____ 109. Generally speaking, the intertidal area is:

a.

rich in life, but only a few species live there.

b.

rich in live, with considerable species diversity.

c.

not particularly rich in life.

d.

not particularly rich in life, but rich in food.

e.

virtually devoid of life because of the great difficulty organisms have in surviving there.

 

____ 110. Intertidal organisms can protect themselves from wave shock by:

a.

hiding when a wave comes.

b.

gluing themselves to the rocks.

c.

sliding into a small crack as the wave crashes around them.

d.

running away.

e.

all (or any) of the above.

 

____ 111. Perhaps the most difficult oceanic habitat is:

a.

the abyssal zone.

b.

the benthic zone in general.

c.

intertidal rocky shores.

d.

intertidal beaches

e.

intertidal coarse black sand beaches.

 

____ 112. Which of these statements is not true of estuaries?

a.

Larvae are often abundant there.

b.

Estuaries are in danger of development and pollution.

c.

Very few autotrophs live in estuaries, but many animals can be found there.

d.

Estuaries are places where saltwater and fresh water meet.

e.

Estuaries are exposed to tidal currents moving in and out.

 

____ 113. Food in the intertidal zone is:

a.

not particularly abundant.

b.

abundant but inaccessible.

c.

abundant and accessible, but there are no organisms to take advantage of it.

d.

abundant and accessible, and there are many animals to take advantage of it.

e.

none of the above.

 

____ 114. Which of these areas is generally considered to be the most productive and to be inhabited by the largest number of species?

a.

The deep open ocean below the photic zone.

b.

The deep open ocean floor.

c.

The relatively shallow ocean floor of the continental shelves.

d.

Gravel beaches.

e.

Salt marshes associated with estuaries.

 

____ 115. Intertidal zones are an often-obvious feature of the shore. Which zones would experience the greatest numbers of individuals and species?

a.

The zones nearest dry land.

b.

The zones farthest from dry land.

c.

All the zones have about the same species and organism numbers.

d.

There are such great differences in the world ocean that the answer varies from intertidal place to intertidal place -- it is impossible to generalize an answer without further information.

 

____ 116. Brackish water is:

a.

saltier than normal seawater.

b.

always low in dissolved oxygen.

c.

always high in dissolved carbon dioxide.

d.

a mixture of fresh and saltwater.

e.

nearly incapable of supporting life.

 

____ 117. The "deep scattering layer" is:

a.

a layer of marine dust and fecal pellets that reflects light.

b.

a relatively dense aggregation of fishes, squid, and other animals that migrates up and down in the ocean in synchrony with daylight.

c.

a relatively dense aggregation of phytoplankton that migrates up and down in the ocean in synchrony with daylight.

d.

an artifact of echosounding -- it doesn't really exist.

e.

a relatively dense aggregation of fishes, squid, and other animals that exists in a thin layer immediately above the deep bottom.

 

____ 118. More living things exist on the deep ocean floor than in that part of the water column immediately above it.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 119. Deep vent communities depend on specialized autotrophs that extract the exceedingly dim light that filters down to that depth, and uses it is a specialized form of photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates.

a.

true

b.

false

 

____ 120. Which of the following statements is true of symbiotic relationships?

a.

They are unusual and infrequently observed in nature.

b.

They are only occasionally observed in the marine environment.

c.

They are present in marine biology, but are conspicuously missing in terrestrial biology.

d.

They are the most frequently observed life-style of the Earth's animals.

e.

They are the most frequently observed life-style of the Earth's animals because all organisms on Earth live in direct symbiosis.

 

____ 121. The mode of symbiosis represented by the clownfish/anemone relationship is:

a.

parasitism.

b.

commensalism.

c.

acclimatization.

d.

relationism.

e.

mutualism.

 

____ 122. The most frequently encountered form of direct symbiosis is:

a.

parasitism.

b.

commensalism.

c.

acclimatization.

d.

relationism.

e.

mutualism.

 

____ 123. Species-specific means

a.

a specific host can be parasitized by only one species of parasite.

b.

a specific parasite can parasitize only one species of host.

c.

only one individual parasite can grow within the host organism.

d.

the host can never break free of the parasite.

e.

none of the above.

 

____ 124. Although the ocean itself contains abundant life, marine organisms have not found niches in the sediments significantly below the surface of the sea bed.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

____ 125. Sandy beaches are so harsh that no small animals can survive between their sand grains.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

126. Whaling has effectively ceased; the taking of whales for meat and profit is a thing of the past.

a.

True

b.

False

 

127. Deep abyssal seafloors probably contain even more oil and natural gas than the continental shelves.

These zones have not been exploited only because of the difficulty in drilling in these areas.

a.

True

b.

False

 

128. Though desalination is a technically feasible method for obtaining fresh water from seawater,

large commercial-scale desalinization in the USA is minimal, due to the high-energy costs.

a.

True

b.

False

 

129. Global warning by greenhouse gases is a new global phenomena, and would not have happened if

humans had never generated excess carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, going up into the atmosphere.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

130. In terms of tonnage worldwide, marine fish farming is growing while wild-caught fishing is constant.

a.

True

b.

False

 

131. Most synthetic pollutants resist attack by water, air, sunlight, and living organisms because the

compounds of which they are composed resemble nothing in nature.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

132. Worldwide, the commercial fishing consortia are, for the most part, very careful to conserve the

worlds marine fishery resources, and not to exceed the maximum sustainable yield.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

133. Generally speaking, a spill of crude oil is more dangerous to marine life than a spill of refined oil.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

134. Eutrophication is an example of a "good" pollutant. Most organisms in a eutrophic area thrive and

grow at a normal or accelerated rate with little to no harmful side effects.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

135. Drift nets were developed in response to demands that fishing nets take only target species, and

that commercial fishing techniques be more environmentally sensitive.

a.

true.

b.

false.

 

 

136. Plastics cause significant biological damage in the ocean when _____________.

a.

degradation releases plastic monomer toxins into the environment.

b.

nettings and lines strangle birds, turtles, and seals.

c.

bags are swallowed by turtles and fish, clogging their digestive systems.

d.

Both b and c.

e.

None of the above.

 

137. Which of the following marine life are expected to have the highest concentrations of heavy

metals, DDT, and PCBs in their tissues? Hint: think trophic level.

a.

phytoplankton.

b.

zooplankton.

c.

mollusks, arthropods, and small fish.

d.

medium-sized fish.

e.

Seals, toothed whales, and polar bears.

 

138. Which of the following is NOT a highly toxic heavy metal?

a.

cadmium.

b.

iron.

c.

lead.

d.

nickel.

e.

mercury.

 

139. Manganese nodules can be found _____________.

a.

in shallow water on the continental shelves.

b.

on the land.

c.

in small pockets in the ocean on top of guyouts.

d.

as widespread black lumps that litter the deep seabed.

e.

all of the above.

 

140. The best fishing grounds are located ____________.

a.

in the middle of the open ocean.

b.

in temperate waters over continental shelves.

c.

in tropical waters of the deep sea.

d.

in equatorial waters where there are convergent currents.

e.

anywhere, because most prized fish species are migratory.

 

141. The world's commercial catch of fish is made up mostly of what particular group of fish?

a.

Mostly the cartilaginous fish, like sharks and rays.

b.

Mostly the shellfish, such as lobsters, crabs, mussels and oysters.

c.

Mostly the baitfish like cod, herring, mackerel, anchovies, and sardines.

d.

Mostly reef fish like wrasses, triggerfish, and butterfly fish.

e.

Mostly the big-game fish like tuna and salmon.

 

142. Peak petroleum discoveries in the world _________, while peak petroleum production __________.

a.

occurred back in the 1930s; occurred back in the 1960s

b.

occurred back in the 1960s; occurred back in the 1930s

c.

occurred back in the 1960s; is presently occurring

d.

occurred back in the 1930s; will occur in about 30 years.

e.

is presently occurring; will occur in about 30 years

 

143. The most dangerous threat to the marine environment, in the long run, is definitely ________.

a.

rapid human population growth.

b.

refined oil spills.

c.

solid waste and synthetic pesticides.

d.

excessive greenhouse heating.

e.

ozone layer depletion.

 

144. What accounts for most of the total greatest value of world trade transported by sea?

a.

Passengers.

b.

Finished manufactured goods.

c.

Crude oil.

d.

Grain.

e.

Iron and iron ore.

 

145. The greatest amount of marine energy is theoretically available from ____________.

a.

tidal currents

b.

wind waves

c.

salinity differences

d.

the thermal gradient

e.

ocean currents

 

146. The only marine energy source being successfully exploited on a large-scale is/are:

a.

tidal currents

b.

wind waves

c.

salinity differences

d.

the thermal gradient

e.

ocean currents

 

147. The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) stipulated by the 1982 Draft Convention extends ______

from a nation's shoreline.

a.

50 kilometers (30 miles)

b.

100 kilometers (60 miles)

c.

250 kilometers (150 miles)

d.

370 kilometers (200 miles)

e.

1,000 kilometers (600 miles)

 

148. The synthetic organic pollutants that have been added to the ocean over the years ___________.

a.

are all considered toxic, even lethal to marine organisms.

b.

are toxic to some organisms, but may be nourishing to others.

c.

have an immediate observable effect on all marine life.

d.

have predictable effects and are easily controlled.

 

149. The worst source of petroleum pollution in the marine environment is ____________.

a.

natural oil seeps.

b.

offshore drilling operations.

c.

transport by ship of petroleum products.

d.

coastal refineries or leaking storage tanks.

e.

runoff from land sources, particularly from coastal urban areas.

 

150. The present level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has not been seen on Earth for the past ___

a.

65 years

b.

650 years

c.

6,500 years

d.

65,000 years

e.

650,000 years

 

151. Which of the following statements is true of pollutant-related bioamplification?

a.

Particularly noted with synthetic organic substances and heavy metals.

b.

Very serious problem in lakes and rivers, but virtually nonexistent in the ocean.

c.

The worst affected groups of organisms are the plankton.

d.

A positive side effect is the improved flavor of many of the food and sport fish.

e.

Increases the intensity of eutrophication.

 

152. The ozone layer is important because _______________.

a.

it shields us from dangerous X-rays from the sun.

b.

it keeps the Earth warm in the coldness of space.

c.

ozone is an important plant nutrient, especially critical to diatom growth.

d.

it shield us and other organisms from ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

e.

it can cause skin cancer.

 

152. The doubling time of the human population -- that is, the length of time necessary for the number

of humans to double -- is presently about __________. (hint: its quicker than you might think!)

a.

150 years.

b.

350 years.

c.

1,000 years.

d.

34 years.

e.

500 years.

 

154. Which of the following statements applies to resources from the sea?

a.

They are easier to recover than from the land.

b.

They are usually found in concentrated ores.

c.

They are in greater variety than minerals on land.

d.

They are less expensive to recover than from land.

e.

They are more dilute, harder to reach, and more difficult to recover.

 

155. Second to petroleum and gas, the most profitable physical resource recovered from the ocean is:

a.

crab

b.

diamonds

c.

sand and gravel

d.

sea salt

e.

tuna

 

156. The formation of crude oil will occur in an environment that provides _________.

a.

quiet basins for the accumulation of organic material.

b.

little oxygen and the presence of anaerobic bacteria.

c.

heat and pressure.

d.

deep burial by sediments.

e.

all of the above.

 

157. Which of the following fishing practices is considered the least environmentally friendly?

a.

long-line.

b.

purse seining.

c.

mariculture.

d.

drift-netting.

 

158. The per capita world fish catch has changed in what way?

a.

It has been climbing steadily since the 1950s.

b.

It has declined drastically since the 1950s.

c.

It has stayed at the 1960 level.

d.

It increased steadily to about 1970, then declined, and is still declining.

e.

It has steadily increased to about 1970, leveled off somewhat, but has been gradually increasing since about 1980 due to better fishing boats, the application of high technology, and increased demand.

 

159. Ozone layer depletion has been linked to ___________

a.

measurably higher atmospheric temperatures.

b.

cataracts and skin cancers.

c.

toxic poisonings.

d.

less ultraviolet light reaching the bottom of the photic zone.

e.

less ultraviolet light reaching the surface of the ocean.

 

160. The main drawback to the generation of electricity by a nuclear plant is:

a.

the generation of PCBs.

b.

the plant might blow up like a bomb.

c.

eutrophication.

d.

the electricity is mildly radioactive, and must be mixed with electricity from fossil-fueled utilities.

e.

the safe long-term storage of spent radioactive fuel.

 

161. All of the following resources are commercially recovered from seawater except for _________.

a.

bromine

b.

fresh water

c.

salt

d.

gold and silver

e.

fish and seaweed

 

162. What is sludge and how does it form?

a.

Its an organic byproduct of hazardous algal blooms.

b.

Its a thick lubricant used in drilling oil wells.

c.

Its organic solid wastes separated from sewage during primary treatment.

d.

Its the scientific name for really bad urban runoff that concentrates in storm drains.

e.

None of the above.

 

163. Which one of the following statements concerning global warming is FALSE?

a.

Release of human-generated greenhouse gases has been scientifically tied to global warming trends of the last 100 years.

b.

A warming Earth facilitates rising sea level.

c.

Historic records show that carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere go lock-step with Earth surface temperature changes

d.

Carbon dioxide, methane and water are notorious greenhouse gases.

e.

Greenhouse gases have rose over the past century, but has peaked, and now is starting to drop again.

 

164. Which of these two types of pollution is the toughest to monitor, mitigate, and/or eliminate?

a.

Point source

b.

Non-point source

c.

They are both about the same.

 

165. If hope exists for solutions to marine environmental problems, it lies in __________.

a.

abundant, wishful thinking

b.

intense, devote prayer

c.

the good, old-fashioned American Way

d.

dreamy, blissful ignorance

e.

education, family planning, sustainable living practices

 

Matching:

Directions: Match the numbered (31-50) oceanographic feature or concept with its most closely associated term or relationship (lettered from a to a+e).

 

a.

Heavy metals and Synthetic organics

a+b

Sustainable managed fisheries

b.

Greatest source of marine pollution

b+c

Found exclusively under the continental shelves

c.

Actions of responsible living

c+d

Excessive nutrients and hazardous algal blooms

d.

Burning of billions of tons of fossil fuels

d+e

Takes about 500 years to decompose

e.

Grossly over-exploited fisheries

a+e

Bottom trawling and drift netting

 

166. Eutrophication

 

167. Marine petroleum and natural gas

 

168. Very Bad fishing techniques

 

169. Biological amplification

 

170. Plastic trash

 

171. Tuna and shark species

 

172. Greenhouse warming

 

173. Urban runoff

 

174. The wild Alaskan salmon species

 

175. Reduce - Reuse Recycle